Like her predecessors before her, Melania Trump wore a black veil to meet Pope Francis. “Per Vatican protocol, women who have an audience with the Pope are required to wear long sleeves, formal black clothing and a veil to cover the head.” –Spokeswoman for the First Lady, Stephanie Grisham
Hats are removed for the National Anthem, passing of the flag of the United States, for funeral processions, outdoor weddings and at dedications. Removed hats are held in the hand/s in such a way, that only the outside of the hat and never the lining, is visible.
In many places of worship, head coverings are required. Hats or head scarves are required for both men and women in Muslim mosques. Wearing a Sikh dastaar, or turban, is mandatory for all Amritdhari (initiated) Sikh men and women in Sikh temples.
Men are required to cover their heads in Jewish synagogues, but only married women wear hats or scarves representing a display of her increased modesty towards those other than the woman’s husband.
The small, round head covering or skullcap worn by men is called a “kippah” which means, “dome” or “cupola.” The Yiddish word for the cap is “yarmulke.” The wearing of the yarmulke is a reminder of humility before God, a mark of respect in a Jewish congregation, and a sign of recognition of something greater above oneself, which is why many male Jews wear a head covering whenever they are awake, with the exceptions of bathing and swimming.
It is acceptable for women to wear hats in Christian churches, (it was once required, but the custom has all but disappeared in many parts of the US) but is considered disrespectful for men to wear them.
A woman may leave her hat on indoors or during the playing of the National Anthem, unless it is considered unisex like a baseball cap. If wearing such a unisex cap, a woman should follow the same guidelines as for men.
–From “Ask Andy About Clothes” and other online sites
Etiquette Enthusiast, Maura J. Graber, is the Site Editor for the Etiquipedia© Etiquette Encyclopedia